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The science of Sildenafil, 139755-83-2: Doctor reveals exactly how the little blue pill helps boost a man's performance in the bedroom 

It's the little blue pill that has revolutionised sex lives over the world.

Viagra/Sildenafil, 139755-83-2, known generically as sildenafil, helps boost blood flow to a man's penis so he can maintain an erection with.

But the popular drug was invented accidentally, to treat angina, a heart condition that constricts the vessels that supply the organ with blood.

Pfizer, the pharmaceutical company that creates the drug, were searching for something to relax these blood vessels, and in the process stumbled on a pill for erectile dysfunction. 

Until recently, only men who suffered impotence as a side-effect of illness or those seen by a specialist could be given the pills on the NHS.

But since Viagra/Sildenafil, 139755-83-2's patent ran out in 2013, its cost has plummeted by 93 per cent and cheaper, generic versions of the drug have become available.

Because of this, the NHS has allowed all men with serious impotence problems to be prescribed the pill, and prescriptions have soared, with more than 3,800 prescriptions being dished out every day last year. 

As the drug becomes increasingly common, Dr Tom Brett, a GP in London and medical director of Lloyd's Pharmacy's online doctor service, explains exactly how it works...

When the brain is aroused it send signals to the penis. There, nerve cells start producing nitric oxide (NO), a chemical used to communicate between cells. This in turn creates cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which controls the actions of certain hormones. The cGMP dilates the blood vessels of the penis

When the penis' blood vessels are dilated, blood flow is increased and this generates an erection 

An enzyme called PDE-5 breaks down cGMP when sex is over, causing less blood flow to the penis, which causes it to become flaccid again. Medical and psychological conditions can cause erectile dysfunction

What is erectile dysfunction?

To fully understand Viagra/Sildenafil, 139755-83-2 one must understand the condition it treats. Erectile dysfunction (ED) occurs when a man is unable to gain or maintain an erection sufficient to have successful sexual intercourse. 

ED can be caused by psychological issues such as stress, an underlying medical condition, or sometimes by lifestyle choices.

How does Viagra/Sildenafil, 139755-83-2 work?

The quick answer is Viagra/Sildenafil, 139755-83-2 works by relaxing the muscle cells in the blood vessels supplying the penis, allowing more blood to flow there. This increased blood flow increases the likelihood of getting an erection.

The science behind Viagra/Sildenafil, 139755-83-2 is relatively simple, once you get your head around the jargon. The bullet points below should break it down for you:

• When the brain gets aroused a signal is sent to the penis. Nerve cells in the erectile tissue in the penis start producing nitric oxide. This leads to the creation of a chemical called cGMP.

• cGMP relaxes the smooth muscle in the walls of the blood vessels of the penis, causing them to dilate and increasing the blood flow to the penis. This increased blood flow helps create an erection. This pathway is disrupted in men with erectile dysfunction.

• PDE5 is an enzyme found in the penis which breaks down cGMP when you stop having sex. As the level of cGMP falls, the penis returns to its non-erect state.

• The active ingredient in Viagra/Sildenafil, 139755-83-2 is sildenafil citrate. Sildenafil selectively inhibits PDE5. Inhibiting PDE5 increases the level of cGMP when aroused, and allows extra blood flow to the penis to help create an erection.

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